FREE Essay on Socialism (Marxist Socialism)
English Ujamaa--essays on socialism
The most extensive socialist project based on African principles was Nyereres Ujamaa villagization scheme, in what became the hallmark of Tanzanias commitment to self-reliance. In Ujamaa: Essays on Socialism (1968), Nyerere offers a doctrine of traditional extended familyhood (ujamaa ) as a blueprint for African unity and development. Enshrined in the Arusha Declaration of 1967, this doctrine rejected heavy industrialization, with its dependency on foreign capital, in favor of collectively organized agricultural production in newly formed Ujamaa villages. What began as voluntaristic, grass-roots, cooperative socialism, however, became socialism imposed from above (Young 1982, pp.114115) as recalcitrant peasant producers in scattered peasant homesteads were relocated into cooperative communities. Dean McHenry (1979, p. 43) estimates that 91.3 percent of the rural population was living in ujamaa villages by 1976. Although villagization, combined with Scandinavian aid, improved education, medical care, and public utilities in the rural areas, an overall decline in peasant production, including severe food shortages in 1974, eventually brought the experiment to an end. Nyerere resigned in 1985 to make way for neoliberal reforms, but his legacy of national unity and the correlative absence of ethnic politics in Tanzania has endured.
Ujamaa - Essays on Socialism: JULIUS K
Kelley remains at Hull House until 1899, giving lectures, as well as writing essays on socialism and industrial problems. During this time, she supports her family by getting a job at John Crear Library in Chicago.